In 1996, the first study on research utilization in nursing practice was published in Japan.
In contrast, in the United States, many studies on research utilization have been published since 1970s. This indicates that research utilization in nursing practice in Japan is late remarkably compared with the United States. Therefore, it is an important issue to maintain the learning environment and the learning opportunity for nurses in order to improve their competency on research utilization, in Japan. Objectives
To clarify the present conditions of the learning environment and the learning opportunity related to research utilization for nurses in Japanese hospitals.
To discuss the issues how to maintain the learning environment and the learning opportunity in Japanese hospitals for nurses in order to improve their competency on research utilization. Methods
A mail survey was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of 43 items to investigate the learning environment and the learning opportunities for nurses in the hospitals related to research utilization, and the hospital attributes. The 43 items were made based on the literature review, the content validity of the questionnaire was established through a pilot study. The questionnaires were distributed to 109 hospitals that the directors of nursing agreed to participate the study. Respondents of the questionnaire were the charge of the in-service education for nurses in each hospitals, and they were asked to respond the questionnaire answered by mail with using the self-addressed envelope. The data were analyzed statistically. Results
The charges of the in-service education for nurses of 97 hospitals respond it. Among 97 hospitals, 11 (11.3%) was public hospitals, 34 (35.1%) were semi-public hospitals, and 52 (53.6%) was private hospitals. As for the number of beds, 4 hospitals (4.1%) was more than 700 beds, 6 hospitals (6.2%) was less than 700 more than 500, 34 hospitals (35.0%) was less than 500 more than 300, 50 hospitals (51.5%) was less than 300 more than 100, 3 hospitals (3.1%) was less than 100.
25 hospitals (25.8%) had the library, 54 hospitals (55.7%) had the reading room, and on the other hand, 18 hospitals (18.6%) had neither the library nor the reading room. As for the literature search facilities, 37 hospitals (38.1%) answered "enough", and 55 hospitals (56.7%) answered "not enough". As for the database for the literature search, Ichu-shi web was available in 43 hospitals (44.3%), which is the most frequently used database to search for Japanese nursing articles systematically. In contrast, the hospital where CINAHL were prepared, which could be used to search overseas nursing articles systematically in only 6 Hospital (6.2%). As for the Internet environment for nurses, 3 hospitals (44.4%) answered "available" and 50 hospitals (51.6%) answered "not available".
93 hospitals (95.9%) had the system to support nurses to attend the seminars or the academic conferences, which were held outside of the hospitals and useful for nurses to know the latest research outcomes. The numbers of the hospitals which provided the seminars on research utilization for nurses was only 17 (17.5%). In addition, only 8 hospitals (47.1%) among 17 hospitals answered that the seminars were effective to promote the research utilization in nursing practice. Among the 97 hospitals, 60 hospitals (61.9%) had the seminars on conducting research, 77 hospitals (79.4%) had the seminars on literature search, and 11 hospitals (11.3%) had the seminar on research critique. In addition, 77 hospitals (79.4%) answered that they had to be enriched the education for nurses on research utilization. Conclusions
The result of this study showed present conditions of the learning environment and the learning opportunities on research utilization for Japanese nurses in the hospitals are not enough, and these improvement is the future issue.
For promoting the effective seminar on research utilization for nurses in hospitals, it is also important to develop the educational programs and to spread them on research utilization based on the research.
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