Aim: To develop an operational definition of the CCC model and identify key quality indicators across palliative and end-of-life care settings at the individual, team and organizational levels.
Methods: An integrative review of the current state of the palliative and end-of-life care literature. The WHO Framework for Action on Interprofessional Education & Collaborative Practice along with Donabedian’s quality of care framework were adapted.
Results: Final literature sample consisted of 25 articles. Findings were presented as a narrative summary of overarching themes, organized into structures, processes, and outcomes categories. Sub-categories included the individual, team, and organizational levels. Respect, patient and family-centeredness, communication, and shared decision-making emerged as the overarching themes. Sub-categories included commitment, dignity, resources, care rounds, Schwartz Rounds, consultation, pain and symptom management, satisfaction, teamwork, and program development.
Discussion/Conclusion: The CCC model can facilitate evaluation of structures, processes, and outcomes at three levels; individual patient/provider, team, and organizational. Compassionate collaborative care can be viewed as the ‘missing antecedent’ for fully operationalizing and sustaining patient-centered care in palliative care settings. Nurse clinicians, managers and educators can play a key role in further refining and operationalizing this model.
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