Increasing Prostate Cancer Knowledge and Screening Among US Black Men

Sunday, 29 October 2017: 10:45 AM

Sabrina L. Dickey, PhD
College of Nursing, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA
Aurellia Whitmore
Division of Pharmacology/ Toxicology, College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA
Ellen S. Campbell, PhD
Economic, Social & Administrative Pharmacy, Florida Agricultural & Mechanical University, Tallahassee, FL, USA

Prostate cancer remains a health disparity among Black men in the United States. In particular, prostate cancer affects Black men at disproportionately higher rates compared to any other race/ethnicity. Mortality rates for prostate cancer reveal Black men are also dying at higher rates, 39.1 per 100,000 compared to 18.0 per 100,000 for White men. Despite the high 5 year survivor rate, 97.6%, for prostate cancer, Black men are diagnosed at a more advanced stage when compared to other races. Thus, the treatment and survival outcomes for Black men with prostate cancer is negatively impacted. The disparity is further compounded through an inconsistency in prostate cancer screening guidelines. The United States Preventative Services Task Force has given prostate cancer screening a grade D recommendation, which essentially indicates the cons outweigh the pros of receiving a prostate cancer screening. Furthermore, informed decision making is being encouraged as a method for men to decide whether or not to receive a prostate cancer screening. It is important to note that a substantially large number of men are not interested in the research required to make an informed decision for receiving a prostate cancer screening. In addition, many health care providers are limited in the amount of time required to assist patients with making an informed decision regarding a prostate cancer screening. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the level of prostate cancer knowledge and the screening behaviors of Black men after a six month follow up from an educational intervention. A quasi-experimental study design with an educational intervention was conducted within a community setting of Black Men. Since the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the intervention on prostate cancer knowledge and screening behavior, only participants which had never been screened or it was over one year since their last screening participated in the study. A cross-sectional sample of Black men from various church, fraternal, masonic, places of employment, and sports organizations volunteered to participate in the study. Each organization was designated as either an experimental or a control group prior to visiting each location. Only participants in the experimental groups received the educational intervention. The educational interventions were held at various churches and community centers within the community. Participants in the experimental and control groups completed baseline questionnaires regarding demographics, prostate cancer knowledge and prostate cancer screening status. Once participants in the experimental group completed the questionnaires, they were immediately provided with the educational intervention. A video regarding prostate cancer, screening, treatment, and preventive behaviors served as the educational intervention among the experimental groups. The participants in the control groups only completed the questionnaires. Follow up phone calls were implemented at a six month follow up for each experimental and control group to assess their prostate cancer knowledge and screening status. The study began with a sample size of 76 among the groups, experimental (n = 37, 48.7%) and control (n = 39, 51.3%). A final sample of 54 was obtained for the study at the 6 month follow up. The attrition rate was 11% and yielded an experimental group of (n = 26, 48.1%) and the control group of (n = 28, 51.8%). The baseline prostate cancer knowledge score for participants had a mean of 51% for the number of questions answered correctly. The post-test prostate cancer knowledge score at the 6 month follow up was 64% for the number of items answered correctly. At baseline 11 participants from the experiment group (34.4%) had never been screened for prostate cancer, while 21 participants from the control group (60.0%) had reported never being screened. Upon examination of participants in both groups at the 6 month follow up which had never been screened, only 2 participants (7.7%) from the experimental group and 12 participants (42.9%) in the control group reported they had never received a prostate cancer screening. Similar findings from the current study were found in previous studies that examined the impact of an educational intervention on the level of prostate cancer knowledge and screening rates among Black men. Results indicated that an educational intervention seems to increase prostate cancer knowledge as well as screening rates among Black men. Education is a pertinent factor in maintaining the health of an individual. Through educational sessions within communities the knowledge levels and an awareness of prostate cancer can be disseminated throughout the high risk population for prostate cancer, Black men.