Learning Objective 1: identify the six ethical decision-making preferences and describe the associated ethical dilemma paradigm.
Learning Objective 2: describe how different ethical decision-making preferences may experience moral distress when negotiating an ethical dilemma.
The Spangler Ethical Reasoning Assessment (SERA) items are based on research in rational decision theory and a spectrum of philosophical ethical theories (including feminist, Kantian, liberal-individualist, communitarian, and principle-based common-morality theory). The SERA connects theory and praxis by showing nurses which type of ethical theory they routinely apply in their professional, day-to-day decision-making.
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