Knowledge Deficit on Diet and Footcare for Diabetics in Trinidad

Saturday, 23 February 2019: 1:20 PM

Parbatee Siewdass, DNP
University of the West Indies School of Nursing, St Augustine, University of the West Indies St Augustine, St Augustine,, Trinidad and Tobago

The incidence of diabetes has increased worldwide over the past 25 years, with Trinidad and Tobago ranking among the countries with the most prevalent and fastest-growing number of cases of this chronic and potentially life-threatening disease. While effective self-management is fundamental to achieve optimum control of blood sugar and reduce the risk of complications related to diabetes, only few individuals with diabetes engage in the recommended levels of diabetes self-management practices


Using a structured questionnaire, face-to-face interviews were conducted on a random sample of 30 patients with type 2 diabetes in a diabetes clinic. The study included pre-test, health exhibition and a post-test on self-care management for diet and foot care. IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Statistics 21 was used to determine values for descriptive analyses and a paired sample T-test was used comparing the mean scores for the same group of subjects on two different occasions.


Majority of the study participants were females (67.7%), within the 46–55 years age group, 60% of patients were from low socio-economic status, and 58% had primary and secondary level of education. A paired sample t-test was conducted to evaluate the impact of the intervention of subject’s scores on meal and prescribed medication reported a statistically significant difference in scores from the pre-test (M = 2.48,) to post- test scores (M =1.52), and eta squared statistics (0.55). The Eta squared statistics (0.97) scores obtained before and after the intervention for inspection of feet, what is inspected on the feet (0.17), frequency of inspection of the feet had an Eta squared statistics (0.49) score for all indicated a large effect size with a substantial difference in participants scores obtained before and after the intervention following the health exhibition


Diabetic patients in Trinidad primarily depend on prescribed medications for blood sugar control. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to promote knowledge on self-care management related to diet and foot care to reduce morbidity and mortality.


Among patients with Type 11 diabetes, more interventions are needed to encourage self-care management, specifically in areas of lifestyle (diet and foot care). Socioeconomic status related to benefits of self-care management and patient self-efficacy should be emphasised.

Keywords: Type 11 diabetics, Health Exhibition, Diet, Foot Care

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