Linkages between Metabolic Control, Self Care Behaviors and Parenting Styles in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

Thursday, 10 July 2008: 3:15 PM
Maia Stoker , Mountainlands Community Health Center, Provo, UT
Barbara L. Mandleco, RN, PhD , College of Nursing, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT
Susanne Olsen Roper, PhD , Marriage, Family and Human Development, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT
Elaine S. Marshall , School of Nursing, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA
Tina Dyches, PhD , Department of Counseling Psychology and Special Education, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT

Learning Objective 1: discuss how self care behaviors and HbA1C levels, are related to parenting styles in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

Learning Objective 2: apply information about self care behaviors, HbA1C levels, and parenting styles in adolescents with type 1 diabetes to practice.

Tight metabolic control is important in preventing diabetes complications. Even though many factors impact tight metabolic control, few are as effective as successful management of basic self-care behaviors. Family cohesion, social support, and personal coping enhance an adolescent's positive diabetes-related self care behaviors, as do interactions with parents. However, little information exists on the relationship among parenting styles, self-care behaviors, and metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, and no parenting style has been identified as being more conducive to tight glycemic control than another. Therefore this project used mothers, fathers, and adolescents with type I diabetes as informants to explore the relationship among parenting styles and self-care behaviors and metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Twenty-nine adolescents completed the management of self care behaviors questionnaire. Their parents complete the parenting practices report. Metabolic control was determined by averaging four HbA1C values taken prior to study enrollment. Results indicated a significant relationship between authoritative mothering and both adolescent self-care behaviors and metabolic control. Regression analyses controlling for age and length of time with diabetes confirmed the relationships. Authoritative fathering positively correlated with the self-care behaviors of monitoring blood glucose, taking insulin and not skipping meals. A relationship was also noted between mothers/fathers permissive parenting and poorer metabolic outcomes. However, the permissive parenting correlations did not remain significant when controlling for age and length of time with diabetes. Findings suggest it is important to provide adequate support so parents can adjust to the responsibilities related to caring for their adolescent with type 1 diabetes. It would also be useful to assess parenting practices and help parents use authoritative parenting more than authoritarian /permissive parenting. Finally, interventions aimed at encouraging positive parent-adolescent relations may minimize parent/adolescent conflict and facilitate adolescent self care behaviors and improved metabolic control.