Learning Objective 1: Recognize relevant data related to prevalence of depression in African American women with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Learning Objective 2: Discuss the significance of relationships among depressive symptoms and functional status in middle-aged and older African American women with T2D and incorporate in clinical practice.
Approximately 3.2 million African Americans (AA) have type 2 diabetes (T2D) and experience functional disability. However, few studies have examined the association between depressive symptoms and functional status in AA women with T2D.
The secondary data analysis examined the relationships between depressive symptoms and functional status in middle-aged AA women with T2D.
This cross-sectional, descriptive-correlation design study had a convenience sample of 45 AA women (aged 35-73) enrolled in 3 community-based primary care centers in the southeastern US. Measurements were depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), sociodemographic/health information (Personal, Health and Sociodemographic Questionnaire), physiometrics (participants' medical records), and functional status (Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL) and Intermediate Activities of Daily Living (IADL). Data were analyzed with chi-square, Spearman Rho correlations, and multiple regression analysis. Level of significance was p=.05.
For biometrics, participants averaged high body mass indexes (BMI) (33.6±6.7 kg/m2), high Hemoglobin A1c levels (8.5%±2.65), and high low density lipid levels (116.07±33.18 mg/dL). BADL correlated with CES-D item-6 (r=-.32, p=.03) and CES-D item-13 (r=-.33, p=.03). CES-D item-3 correlated with IADL (r=-.43, p=.003) and BMI (r =.42, p=.005). With backwards elimination regressions, BMI, BADL, IADL, age, and education explained the variance in CES-D item-3 (r-square=.44, p=.0001), item-6 (r-square=.33, p=.006), and total score (r-square=.32, p=.007). Total depressive symptom scores were not correlated with functional status.
Findings suggest that specific depressive symptoms may be unexpressed or unrecognized in AA women with T2D and warrant further investigation.