HIV Prevention: “Machismo”, “Marianismo” and HIV Misconceptions in Low Income Chilean Women

Tuesday, 8 July 2008: 3:35 PM
Rosina Cianelli, PhD, MPH, RN, FAAN , Schol of Nursing and Health Studies, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL
Nilda (Nena) Peragallo, RN, DrPH, FAAN , Schol of Nursing and Health Studies, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL
Lissette Irarrazaval, MS(c) , Escuela de Enfermeria, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Macul, Chile

Learning Objective 1: 1) The learner will be able to understand Machismo and Marianismo in the context of HIV

Learning Objective 2: 2) The learner will be able to identified cultural factors has having and important role in the transmission of the HIV

Background: Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention.

Methodology: As part of a mixed methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in follow-up, in-depth interviews. conducted at a community clinic located in La Pintana County in the Southeast of Santiago. The area is considered one of the most socio-economically disadvantaged communities in the city, with 31% out of the 190,000 inhabitants living in poverty

Results: Show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to programme development. Future HIV prevention should cultural aspects, stress partner communication, empowerment, and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.

Machismo and marianismo present significant barriers to HIV prevention. In Latino culture, macho men represent male domination, and women are under their power. As a result, women lack the ability to make personal decisions and have dif Within this context, empowerment must be an important component of future HIV prevention efforts.

Implications: Programs are needed to increase women's self-esteem, self-confidence and self-efficacy, as well as to decrease their dependence. In addition, training in communication strategies and negotiation skills with male partners are essential factors to include for an effective preventive program