Learning Objective 1: identify the breast cancer beliefs and practices in Vietnamese American women.
Learning Objective 2: develop a similar cultural appropriate cancer screening educational program for other ethnic populations
This experimental two-group pretest-posttest study evaluate the effects of an educational intervention on breast cancer knowledge and health beliefs, breast self exam (BSE) knowledge, practices and confidence levels, mammogram activities, and clinical breast exam in a sample of 94 Vietnamese American women living in Houston and its vicinity.
Using chi-square and one-way ANOVA, demographic data and the effects of the intervention were evaluated. The participants were randomized to control (n=41) and experimental (n=53) groups. The Health Belief Model was used as the conceptual framework. Components of Leininger’s transcultural nursing theory were incorporated into the design of the educational intervention.
Perceived seriousness [F (1,91) 11, p < 0.01] and perceived benefit [F (1,91) 11, p < 0.01)] were found to be significantly different between the 2 groups. Three months after the intervention, there were significant increases in the level of BSE knowledge [F (1,92) = 8.45, p = 0.005], level of confidence in performing BSE [F (1,91) = 1.54, p = 0.009], and a higher self-report of BSE practice [X2 = (1,N = 94) = 7.27, p = 0.007]. There was a significant change noted within the experimental group in breast cancer knowledge [F (1,98) = 13.94, p < 0.001]. There were no significant changes found between the control and intervention groups in respect to breast cancer knowledge [F (1,91) = 1.7, p = 0.2], self-reported mammogram activities [X2 (1, N = 74) = 0.16, p = 0.90], and self-reported clinical breast exam [X2 (1,N = 88) = 0.98, p = 0.32].
These findings indicated a culturally sensitive educational intervention could have a positive impact on the health beliefs and practices related to screening and early detection of breast cancer in this population. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the impact of the educational intervention over time.
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