Psychometric Characteristics of the Parsimonious Chinese Version of Smoking Self-Efficacy Survey (CSSES-20)

Monday, 13 July 2009: 3:25 PM

Huey-Shys Chen, PhD, RN, CHES
School of Nursing, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ

Learning Objective 1: gain the knowledge of the development of an instrument.

Learning Objective 2: know the process of psychometric validation of an Instrument across different languages.


Empirical evidences from previous studies with children suggested that the Chinese version of Smoking Self-efficacy Survey (CSSES) had acceptable reliability and validity and it could be shortened from 33 items to 20 items. Although an instrument might have established sound psychometric properties in one population, it is necessary to evaluate the reliability and validity of a newly developed instrument with different populations.


The purpose of this study was to conduct psychometric testing on the 20-item Chinese version of Smoking Self-efficacy Survey (CSSES-20) with Taiwanese adolescents.


A cross-sectional design was used in this study. Random cluster sampling method was used in this study and a sample of 571 adolescent aged 13 to 15 years were from two junior high schools in northern Taiwan was recruited in this study.


Exploratory factor analysis procedures were used to access the validity of the CSSES-20. Three components accounting for 80.4% of the total variances were yielded from the factor analysis. The criterion validity was supported by the correlation coefficient of .99 between the original CSSES and the CSSES-20.  The contrasted group approaches affirmed the construct validity of the CSSES-20. Item-to-subtotal correlation coefficients for the three subscales were above 0.60. Stability for three subscales was supported by test-retest correlation coefficients above 0.90.  Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for three subscales ranged from 0.95 to 0.97 and the findings confirmed the reliability of the CSSES-20.


The validity and reliability of the CSSES-20 were supported by the psychometric test results in this study. It suggested that the parsimonious CSSES-20 was applicable to the Taiwanese adolescents in a study of smoking behaviors.