Predictors of Culturally Competent Nursing Care (Ethno Care) in Senior Nursing Students: Awareness, Attitudes, and Level of Preparation

Monday, 13 July 2009: 2:45 PM

Maureen Moulder, MS, RN
Division of Nursing, Molloy College, Rockville Centre, NY

Learning Objective 1: describe senior nursing students cultural competence (ethno care) in four domains (affective, attitudinal, cognitive and behavioral).

Learning Objective 2: discuss the influence of variables including (1) level of preparation, (2) attitudes toward patient diversity, and (3) awareness of ethno nursing care on cultural competency.

Background.  Nurses deal with patient cultures and subcultures that are constantly evolving. With its introduction into curriculum, nursing educators have attempted to prepare nurses in culturally competent care (ethno care) described in AACN guidelines. The diverse nursing student population is globally mobile. This study examines how nursing students perceive how they learn about culture care and how they perceive their level of competence in providing culturally specific care. Elements of this concept are addressed throughout the curriculum, and addressed in national and international nursing accreditation standards.
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine senior nursing students’ preparation in AACN culture care, their attitudes toward diversity, their awareness of ethno nursing care, and their competence in ethno nursing care. Based on frameworks from Leinninger and Campinha – Bacote , this study explored the relationship of gender, age, ethnicity, educational level and years of experience in health care profession to attitudes, awareness and competence in ethno care.
Methods. A sample of baccalaureate nursing students from two diverse programs in the metropolitan New York area (n=241) responded to a survey combining quantitative and qualitative items. The instrument was designed by the investigator using concepts from Camphina-Bacote and Purnell, tested for validity and reliability (Alpha = .769 - .914). Two open - ended questions were posed to ascertain common themes.
Results. The findings yielded descriptive statistics on the components of ethno nursing care from four domains of measurement. Correlations were modest but significant (p<.05) for cultural competence and preparation (r=.436) and years of experience (r=.233). There was a significant difference for males in preparation (p<.05) and knowledge (p=.05) of ethno care.
Discussion. Gender and preparation in nursing students influence their reported cultural competence. Culturally competent care needs to be taught to reduce barriers to care and improved patient outcomes.