Evaluating Nurses' Perception of their Work Environment in China, Japan and USA

Tuesday, 14 July 2009

Patricia R. Messmer, PhD, RN, BC, FAAN
Patient Care Services Research, Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, MO
Karen S. Cox, RN, PhD, NEA-BC, FAAN
Patient Care Services, Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, MO
Lin Yan, RN, MS
Nursing Department, Guangzhou Children's Hospital, Guangzhou, China
Susan L. Teasley, RN, CCRC
Patient Care Services, Children's Mercy Hospitals & Clinics, Kansas City, MO
Susan R. Lacey, PhD, RN
Children's Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO
Tomomi Kameoka, RN, DNSc
Nursing Education, National College of Nursing Japan, Kiyose, Tokyo, Japan
Meiqiong Yan, RN, MSN
Shanghai Medical University, Zhong Shan Hospital, Shanghai, China

Learning Objective 1: Discuss the cultural differences between the nurses in USA and in China and Japan as to their perceptions of their work environment

Learning Objective 2: Explore the meaning for each group on their interpretation of manager support, peer support, unit support, workload, intent to stay and nurse satisfaction

Background: ICN emphasizes the need to have positive practice environment for nurses’ world wide; a global STTI issue. Broome (2008) stresses workforces must be prepared to care for all ages. Nurses completed The Individual Workload Perception Scale-Revised (IWPS-R) in Magnet, Non-Magnet & Aspiring Hospitals (Lacey, Cox, Teasley, 2007).
Purpose: To determine if there are differences in nurses’ perception in USA, China & Japan using IWPS-R; translated into Chinese and Japanese-back translated.  King’s (1981) Perception Concept-one’s perception is related to past experiences, self concept, education and socio-eco.
Methods: The IWPS-R, valid and reliable tool (29 Likert-type scale items) Manager, Peer, Unit Support, Workload, Intent to Stay and Nurse Satisfaction subscales; alphas coefficients .61-.91. The IWPS-R was tested 5+ years in 15 states (8,000+ nurses), China and Japan.
Results: Of  5033 participants, 541 Asian- 4492 USA nurses.   Most nurses were born 1965-1979 (48%), 1946-1964 (35%), 1980-present (15%); older nurses (1909-1945 (2.5%). USA nurses (60%) have BSN+ education; Asian nurses (49%)-Junior college.  Longevity- 35% for >15; 30% <5. Nurses work days (55%) more than nights (27%). Female nurses dominate (97%); males (3%). Although not significant, Asian nurses (M=3.79) were higher than USA (M=3.74) on Manager Support; t tests determined significant differences between USA and Asian nurses- lower peer, unit support, workload, intent to stay nurse satisfaction, all at p value of  0.0000. Similarities-longevity, few male nurses and aging workforce. USA nurses have taken the survey for the past 5+ years; 1st time for Asian nurses with survey research.
Conclusion: USA nurses are mentoring the Asian nurses on strategies to enhance peer, unit support, workload, intent to stay & nurse satisfaction while learning how to creatively include families at the bedside.
Conclusion: 1) Continue the collaboration and exchanging ideas, education & research 2) Evaluate cultural and contextual differences 3) Repeat IWPS-R post cultural exchanges.