Learning Objective 1: analyze the importance of self-care behaviors related to glycemic control in a Mexican community of adults with type 2 diabetes.
Learning Objective 2: know about the influence of some demographical and cognitive variables in self-care behaviors in order to have a better understanding for applying nursing interventions.
Methods: It was a correlational study in 17 Health Community Centers in Tampico Tamaulipas Mexico in registered adults with type 2 diabetes. Randomized stratified sampling was used, a sample size with a confidence of 95%, and a power of 90% (135 participants). Exclusion criteria were: psychiatric disorders and any problem of senses. For data collection there were used the Self-Care Activities questionnaire, Diabetes Care Profile, Beck Depression Inventory, Trial A and B tests and biochemical variables (HbA1c, fast blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides). For data analysis there were calculated central tendency measures, Spearman correlation and multivariate analysis.
Results: It was found a self-care behaviors index of 43.50 (DE =15.39). Medication showed the highest index (X = 80.66, DE = 29.87) and glucose monitoring the lowest (X = 7.09, DE = 14.44). Glycemic control was poor in all patients (HbA1c > 7%). It was found a significant negative relationship between self-care behaviors and fasting blood glucose (rs= -.223, p = .009) and a positive relationship between self-care behaviors and comprehension of previous education in diabetes (rs= .223, p = .009). Exercise (rs= -.176, p = .042) and medication (rs= -.296, p = .001) were negatively related with blood glucose. Multivariate analysis showed that variables like cognitive performance, depression and previous education/comprension of diabetes influence self-care behaviors (p < .05).
Conclusion: Findings of this research lead suggest that in this population poor glycemic control is a real problem related with self-care behaviors, thus new schema of education in diabetes through multidisciplinary cognitive interventions need to be applied in order to improve self-care and prevent and delay chronic complications of diabetes.
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