Self-Care Behaviors Related to Glycemic Control in Mexican Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Monday, 12 July 2010: 2:45 PM

Lidia G. Compean, PhD1
Eunice Resendiz, PhD1
Luz Maria Quintero, MSN1
Esther C. Gallegos, PhD2
1Nursing Graduate School, Autonomous University of Tamaulipas, Tampico, Mexico
2College of Nursing, University of Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, Mexico

Learning Objective 1: analyze the importance of self-care behaviors related to glycemic control in a Mexican community of adults with type 2 diabetes.

Learning Objective 2: know about the influence of some demographical and cognitive variables in self-care behaviors in order to have a better understanding for applying nursing interventions.

Purpose: To determine self-care behaviors related to glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes; and to identify the influence of some demographical and cognitive variables in self-care behaviors.

Methods: It was a correlational study in 17 Health Community Centers in Tampico Tamaulipas Mexico in registered adults with type 2 diabetes. Randomized stratified sampling was used, a sample size with a confidence of 95%, and a power of 90% (135 participants).  Exclusion criteria were: psychiatric disorders and any problem of senses. For data collection there were used the Self-Care Activities questionnaire, Diabetes Care Profile, Beck Depression Inventory, Trial A and B tests and biochemical variables (HbA1c, fast blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides). For data analysis there were calculated central tendency measures, Spearman correlation and multivariate analysis.

Results: It was found a self-care behaviors index of 43.50 (DE =15.39). Medication showed the highest index (X = 80.66, DE = 29.87) and glucose monitoring the lowest (X = 7.09, DE = 14.44). Glycemic control was poor in all patients (HbA1c > 7%). It was found a significant negative relationship between self-care behaviors and fasting blood glucose (rs= -.223, p = .009) and a positive relationship between self-care behaviors  and comprehension of previous education in diabetes (rs= .223, p = .009). Exercise (rs= -.176, p = .042) and medication (rs= -.296,  p = .001) were negatively related with blood glucose.  Multivariate analysis showed that variables like cognitive performance, depression and previous education/comprension of diabetes influence self-care behaviors (p < .05).

Conclusion: Findings of this research lead suggest that in this population poor glycemic control is a real problem related with self-care behaviors, thus new schema of education in diabetes through multidisciplinary cognitive interventions need to be applied in order to improve self-care and prevent and delay chronic complications of diabetes.