Self Theories as Predictors of Smoking Cessation

Thursday, 15 July 2010: 2:25 PM

Vicki D. Johnson, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, CNL-BC
School of Nursing, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH

Learning Objective 1: Identify 4 statistically significant predictors of smoking cessation behavior.

Learning Objective 2: Identify 2 statistically significant predictors of intention (motivation) to quit smoking.

Purpose: This study is the first to examine motivations to quit smoking within the theoretical context of self theories (Dweck, 2000).  It investigates whether self theories play a significant predictive role in motivating adults to quit smoking. The study seeks to answer three questions: (1) What variables best predict smoking cessation behavior?  (2) What variables best predict self-reported intention to stop smoking? (3) Is there a statistically significant relationship between self theory of smoking and self theory of intelligence?
Methods: A convenience sample of 197 adult current smokers and ex-smokers in northeast Ohio completed on line or paper versions of the Smoking Questionnaire. This instrument included the 6-item Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence, 3-items from the Self-Theory of Intelligence Self-Form for Adults, and remaining items written by the researcher.  The data were analyzed using correlation and stepwise logistic regression analyses.
Results: Stepwise logistic regression analyses reveal four predictors of smoking cessation: self theory of smoking, the presence of other smokers in the household, annual household income, and strength of intention (motivation) to stop smoking.  Self theory of smoking and perceived helpfulness of nicotine replacement therapy are statistically significantly predictive of strength of intention (motivation) to stop smoking.  Self theory of intelligence was not a significant predictor of smoking cessation behavior or intention.  Self theory of smoking and self theory of intelligence are independent and domain specific. 
Conclusion: This study provides insight into the motivational factors for smoking cessation.  This research has important implications for nurses and other health care providers, cessation program planners, health educators, and further research on self theories in health behavior change.