Self-Care Deficit for the Patients with Hypertension

Tuesday, 13 July 2010: 8:50 AM

Supunnee Thrakul, MS, RN
Petcharat Kerdonfag, MNS, RN
Community Health Nursing, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Learning Objective 1: explore knowledge deficit for the patients with hypertension

Learning Objective 2: explore self-care deficit for the patients with hypertension

Purpose: Hypertension (HT), a chronic-degenerative disease, is one of the most important risk factors in the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular sufferings. The aim of this study was to explore the self-care deficit for the patients with HT and to promote blood pressure control to prevent major complications.

Methods: A descriptive survey of the patients diagnosed with HT was studied by using the questionnaire. The convenience sampling of 145 hypertensive patients, 56 males and 89 females, at the clinic HT in one hospital and one health center in the rural area of Thailand was done. Data were collected between January and February, 2006.  Blood pressure measurement and Body Mass Index have been assessed. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: (1) patient’s history, (2) knowledge about HT, and (3) self-care deficit for HT. The frequency and percentage were used for data analysis. 

Results: The result revealed that some hypertensive patients (20.7%) have complications with heart disease, diabetes mellitus, or renal failure. About 47% of overweight and 7% of obesity were found. Mean and SD. of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 146.2 ±15.4 / 88.1±10.4 mmHg with a maximum of 190/120 mmHg.  Most patients (60.7%) could not control their blood pressure with the criteria <140/90 mmHg (without complication) and <130/80 mmHg (with complications). Only thirty- eight (26.2%) patients gained knowledge about signs and symptoms of HT. However most hypertensive patients had self care deficit to reduce carbohydrate food (73.8%), fatty food (73.1%), and weight control (72.5%), respectively. Most patients (80.2%) knew severe complications of HT.

Conclusion: The role of nurses in the rural area should focus on health education for self-care of HT to determine type of food taken and exercise. Primary prevention would be intervened for young people in order to reduce HT in the community.