Psychometric Properties of Perceived Breastfeeding Support Assessment Tool (PBSAT): An Instrument Designed to Measure Pakistani Urban Working Mothers' Perceptions about Breastfeeding Support

Monday, 30 July 2012: 2:15 PM

Shela Akbar Ali Hirani, MScN, BScN
School of Nursing, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
Rozina Karmaliani, RN, RM, BScN, MScN, MPH, PhD
Aga Khan University School of Nursing, Karachi, Pakistan

Learning Objective 1: Know about psychometric properties of a newly designed instrument (PBSAT) that intend to measure Pakistani urban working mothers’ perceptions about breastfeeding support

Learning Objective 2: Gain insight about the usefulness of the developed tool (PBSAT) for the breastfeeding urban working mothers, health care professionals, policy makers and future researchers

Purpose: Breastfeeding is an essential source of nutrition among young babies; however, in Pakistan a gradual decline in prevalence of breastfeeding, especially among urban working mothers, has been reported. Previous studies among Pakistani urban working mothers revealed that assuring exclusivity and continuation of breastfeeding is challenging if social and /or workplace environmental support is minimal or absent. The problem indicated a crucial need to assess availability of breastfeeding support for Pakistani urban working mothers by using a comprehensive, reliable, and validated tool in their national language (Urdu). This study aims at testing psychometric properties of the “Perceived Breastfeeding Support Assessment Tool” (PBSAT) developed to measure Pakistani urban working mothers’ perceptions about breastfeeding support.

Methods: This methodological research was undertaken in five phases. During phase I, a preliminary draft of the PBSAT was developed by using the Socio-ecological model, reviewing literature, and referring to two United States based tools. In Phase II the instrument was evaluated by seven different experts, and in Phase III the instrument was revised, translated, and back translated. In Phase IV, the tool was pilot tested among 20 participants and then modified on the basis of statistical analysis. In Phase V, the refined instrument was tested on 200 breastfeeding working mothers recruited through purposive sampling from the government and private health care settings in Karachi, Pakistan. Approvals were received from the Ethical Review Committees of the identified settings.

Results :The 29-item based PBSAT revealed an acceptable inter-rater reliability of 0.95, and reliability coefficient of 0.85. A construct validity assessment through Exploratory Factor Analysis supported that the PBSAT has two dimensions, which include “workplace environmental support” (12 items; α = 0.86) and “social environmental support” (17 items; α = 0.77).  

Conclusion: This study was able to develop a refined tool that holds implications for Pakistani breastfeeding working mothers, future researchers, and policy makers.