Postpartum Sleep Quality: Scale Development and Demographic Correlates Analysis

Tuesday, 31 July 2012: 11:10 AM

Chung-Hey Chen, PhD
Institute of Allied Health Sciences & Department of Nursing, Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Learning Objective 1: The learner will be able to understand the PSQS psychometric qualities including internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and convergent validity.

Learning Objective 2: The learner will be able to identify the associated demographic factors with poorer sleep quality in Taiwanese postpartum women.

Purpose: Postpartum sleep disorder is a significant problem for postnatal women. Although influence factors that might predispose postnatal women to sleep disorder have been identified, there are few appropriate instruments available for measuring specific postpartum sleep quality. This study aimed to develop the Postpartum Sleep Quality Scale (PSQS) and explore the associated demographic factors on PSQS.

Methods: A 16-item “Postpartum Sleep Quality Scale” was developed. A total of 202 postpartum women were recruited from a medical center and an obstetric clinic in southern Taiwan from November 2010 to March 2011

Results: The PSQS had item-to-total correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.67 and demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .81) and a 5-day test-retest reliability (r = .81). Its construct validity was confirmed by factor analysis, which extracted and defined two categories of postpartum sleep quality: infant night care and daytime dysfunction, and sleep inefficiency and sleep disturbance; these two factors explained 41.3% of the total variance with factor loadings 0.39 to 0.75. Convergent validity was demonstrated by significant correlation (r = .66) with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, which indicates that postpartum sleep quality and general sleep quality are similar but not identical concept. The demographic factors significantly associating with poorer postnatal sleep quality were unhappy childbirth experience and longer handling household chores per day.

Conclusion: The PSQS is a reliable, valid and useful scale to measure postpartum sleep quality and examine intervention protocols in postpartum women with sleep disturbance.