Process of Psychometric Validation of the Chinese Version of the Smoking Self-Efficacy Survey (CSSES-20)

Thursday, 2 August 2012: 1:35 PM

Huey-Shys Chen, PhD, RN, MCHES, FAAN
School of Nursing, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ

Learning Objective 1: learn the process of psychometric validation of the CSSES-20 across different languages.

Learning Objective 2: learn the psychometric characteristics of the CSSES-20 with Taiwanese population.


The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate the process of psychometric validation of an instrument across languages and cultures.


 A cross-sectional design was used for three studies and  a total of 1,962 students were recruited for 3 studies.


The first study was designed to ensure the reliability and validity of a newly translated instrument. The SSES was translated into Chinese then back translated into English. The CSSES was adapted based on input from a focus group, a panel of experts, and lay persons. The validity of the CSSES was supported by face validity, content validity index, and construct validity. Study results indicated that the CSSES could be shortened from 33 items to 20 items (CSSES-20).The next study was to conduct psychometric testing on the CSSES-20. Exploratory factor analysis and contrasted group comparisons affirmed the construct validity of the CSSES-20. Reliability was supported by the Cronbach's alphas and test retest(0.90). The third study was to conduct further psychometric validation on the CSSES-20. Cross validation method was used in this study. Exploratory factor analysis from half of sample size yielded three components for the CSSES-20 accounting for 78.3% of the total variance. The results from confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the three-factor structure was the best fit for the CSSES-20(CFI = 0.97). Reliability was supported by Cronbach's alphas.


Validity and reliability of the CSSES-20 were supported by the psychometric test results of three studies, which suggested that the CSSES-20 was congruent with the culture of the Taiwanese students in studding smoking behaviors.