Adoption and Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-36 in Taiwan

Wednesday, 1 August 2012

Tzu-Chia Lin, MS, RN
Department of Nursing, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan
Shu-Mei Chao, MS, RN
Nursing school, Foo-Yin University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
Miaofen Yen, PhD, RN
Department of Nursing & Institute of Allied Health Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan city, Taiwan

Learning Objective 1: The learner will be able to learn the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of KDQOL-36.

Learning Objective 2: The learner will be able to compare the the research result to other countries.


 The Kidney Disease Quality of Life-36 (KDQOL-36) is a disease-specific instrument consists of 36 items divided into 5 domains: SF-12 (physical and psychological domain) and kidney-disease-targeted (symptom/problems, effects of kidney disease and burden of kidney disease domain). It is designed for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the present study was to translate and to determine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the KDQOL -36.


 This study was an instrument testing research to test the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the KDQOL-36. The English version of KDQOL-36 was first translated into Chinese. The translated version questionnaire was then administered to 329 Taiwanese Mandarin-speaking patients aged 20 or older and with a diagnosis of CKD according to the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDQOI). The psychometric properties of the instrument, including the internal consistency, factor analysis and parallel analysis were performed. The WHO Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument, a generic QOL measurement, was compared to the overall health rating scale KDQOL-36 to investigate the construct validity.


The study is in progress. Descriptive statistics will be expressed as frequencies and percentage or as mean and SD. Internal consistency of the KDQOL-36 will be assessed by determining Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the overall scale and subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, scree plot examination, eigenvalues greater than 1, and parallel analysis will be also performed.

Conclusion: The Chinese version of KDQOL-36 had adequate reliability and validity and therefore it will be a valuable instrument for health care professionals to evaluate the quality of life among patients with CKD in Taiwan. In addition, the production of validated translation of the KDQOL-36 in various languages will contribute to the transnational comparisons of research result.