Effects of Hazardous Work Conditions on Burnout Among Nurses of a General Hospital in Macau

Wednesday, 1 August 2012: 3:30 PM

Sydney X. Hu, PhD1
Andrew Luk, PhD1
Grace K. I. Lok, MN1
Jui-Kuo Hsiao, MA2
(1)The Kiang Wu Nursing College of Macau, Macau, Macau
(2)Center for General Education, Kang-Ning Junior College of Medical Care and Management, Taiwan, Taiwan

Learning Objective 1: The learners will be able to recognize how the different workplace hazards have significant effects on burnout of nurses.

Learning Objective 2: The learners will be able to identify the specific hazardous work conditions that could lead to burnout of nurses.


Meta analysis showed that burnout is affected by workplace risks and hazards across industries. The purpose of the study is to use Structural Equation Modeling to test the effects of workplace hazards on burnout of nurses in a general hospital in Macau. The findings provide practical and research implications for better management of work conditions and burnout among nurses.


A questionnaire survey of all nurses was conducted in a major general hospital in Macau. Workplace hazards were assessed using a set of self developed questions and burnout was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Exploratory factor analyses were used to identify factors in scales. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the relationship between workplace hazards and burnout. 


Majority of the nurses (N=424) of the hospital participated in the survey. Exploratory factor analysis identified three factors in the workplace hazards scale, which are biological threats, psychosocial harassments and polluted physical environments. The analysis also identified three factors in the Maslach Burnout Inventory, which are depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and personal achievement. Structural Equation Modeling showed that workplace hazards significantly explained 73% of variance of burnout with a standardized regression weight of 0.85. All three factors of workplace hazards have significant effects on depersonalization and emotional exhaustion aspects of burnout. The results of measures of model fit are acceptable. 


Workplace hazards have an adverse effect on burnout of nurses in the general hospital. Not only biological threats but also the polluted physical environments and psychosocial harassments have significant effects on the depersonalization and emotional exhaustions of nurses. These hazardous work conditions need to be controlled and studied in order to reduce burnout among nurses.