Development and Linguistic Validation of the Japanese Version of Teaching Style Assessment Scale

Monday, 30 July 2012

Fumiko Yoshida, MSN, RN
School of Nursing, Saku University, Saku, Japan
Toyoaki Yamauchi, MD, ND, PhD, FNP, RN
School of Health Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan

Learning Objective 1: The learner will be able to list and define all the elements of learner-centered teaching

Learning Objective 2: The learner will be able to identify cross cultural issues in Japanese education.


To translate the Teaching Style Assessment Scale (Principles of Adult Learning Scale) into Japanese and evaluate the linguistic validation.

To develop the Teaching Style Assessment Scale for Japanese nursing educators.


Ten nursing educators from universities (7), junior college (1) and nursing diploma schools (2) took part in a pre-test, adapted from "Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS)" developed by Gary Conti, Ed.D. Dr. Conti served as mentor to the principal investigator, and advisor throughout the process of developing a Japanese version of PALS, translation, back-translation, consultation, and pre- testing were used to assess the teaching styles of this sample of Japanese nursing educators.


The Scale that was developed initially included educators' opinions.

The response time was longer than anticipated.

The educators reported vocabulary difficulties with the pre-test.

Japanese nursing educators are expected to have diverse classroom practices, including lecture, recitation and practicum. The educators reported difficulty focusing on their personal teaching style while responding to the questionnaire.


Development of the Japanese Version of the Teaching Style Assessment Scale is continuing using multiple procedures including linguistic validation.