Development of Model Using Sociocognitive Variables to Explain Self-Care in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Monday, 30 July 2012: 11:10 AM

Susan Grinslade, PhD, RN, APRN, BC1
Hongjuan Jing, RN, BS1
Bruce Paper, BA2
(1)School of Nursing, SUNY University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY
(2)Office of Nursing Research, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX

Learning Objective 1: explain the importance of examining the sociocognitive aspects of women's lives as it relates to self-care of type 2 diabetes.

Learning Objective 2: explore how perceived of self-efficacy, social support, and barriers to care impact diabetes self-care management in women.


            Sociocognitive variables of self-efficacy, social support, outcome expectancies, and barriers to self-care were used to examine self-care practices in adult women with Type 2 diabetes.  Two instruments to assess diabetes self-efficacy and social support in women were developed.

            A convenience sample of 198 adult women with diabetes volunteered to participate in the study.  Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, Social Support for Women with Diabetes Scale, Diabetes Self-Efficacy Scale, Barriers to Self-Care Scale, Outcome Expectancies Scale, and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale.  Additionally, the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding was completed and used to control for confounding introduced by self-report data.


            The sample had a mean age of 51.5, was 79.7% Hispanic, and had mean duration of diabetes of 10.3 years.  Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between the explanatory variables and diabetes self-care activities.  Analysis resulted in five explanatory models.


            Income, self-efficacy, barriers to diet, and Hispanic ethnicity explained 37% (r 2 = .37) of diet self-care.  The variance in medication self-care (15%) was explained by barriers to medication and social support.  The combined use of oral and injectable medication and self-efficacy explained 32% (r2 = .32) of the variance in self-monitoring of blood glucose.  Exercise self-care had 37% (r2 = .37) of the variance explained by barriers to exercise, income, and social support.  Primary variables of interest, self-efficacy and social support, accounted for 74% (r2 = .74) of the variance in diabetes self-care.


Findings from this study exemplify the importance of examining unique aspects of care which influence diabetes self-care within the social context of women’s lives.  In particular, self-efficacy, social support and barriers were significant explanatory variables.