The Culture of Incident Reporting Among Filipino Nurses

Wednesday, 1 August 2012: 2:10 PM

Barbara Michelle de Guzman, MSN, RN
Institute of Nursing, Far Eastern University, Manila, Philippines

Learning Objective 1: The learner will be able to identify the different factors that influence Filipino nurses' willingness to report errors.

Learning Objective 2: The learner will be able to design a plan for encouraging incident reporting which takes into consideration the influence of culture on Filipino Nurses.


This research provides a preliminary view into the culture of incident reporting among Filipino nurses pertaining to the factors that influence their willingness to report errors.


Quantitative data were collected from a snowball sample of fifty-four nurses who have been working in a staff nurse capacity in health care facilities in the Philippines using the modified online version of the AHRQ Patient Safety Questionnaire. The scores on the AHRQ questionnaire pertaining to incident reporting were expressed as the percentage of answers for each dimension

Qualitative data derived from a Focus Group Discussion (n=6) were analyzed using Moustakas’ technique in phenomenological analysis.


Most respondents gave their unit a grade of “acceptable” (53.1%), only 6.1% gave their unit a grade of "excellent".  Majority (87%) reported no more than two incidences over the last 12 months, with more than half (543.3%) reporting zero number of incidents in the last 12 months.   Triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data revealed that incident reporting is used to determine who is to blame in patient injuries and death; and errors with lesser or no liabilities are more readily reported.  From there emerged the 5Ps of incident reporting among Filipino nurses: 1. Policy (Organizational and unit practices and leadership) 2. Probity (integrity and honesty) 3. Peril (degree of error) 4.  Punishment (individual liability) and 5. Preservation (defense or protection).


For Filipino nurses, the culture of a reactive and punitive culture is as evident as that reported in foreign literature. A shift to an honest, non-punitive and blame-free system is necessary in order to serve in the current global agenda to ensure provision of safe and quality care.  Similarly, probity and preservation were minimally, if at all, discussed in foreign literature and may possibly be uniquely Filipino.  A more in depth investigation is recommended.