King's Conceptual System Theory in Understanding Social Cultural Perceptions of Kenyan Women with HIV

Wednesday, 24 July 2013

Rosemary Mwangi, RN, BS, MSN
Nursing School, Los Angeles County College of Nursing and Allied Health, Los Angeles, CA

Learning Objective 1: The learner will be able to identify the three dynamic interacting systems that make up the Kings Conceptual System theory.

Learning Objective 2: The learner will be able to identify at least two ways how theory informed the study.

Purpose: This presentation will  illustrates how King's Conceptual System theory provided direction  and informed  the conduct of research seeking to understand perceptions of women living with HIV/AIDS in Kenya. Kings theory  which depicts open systems that constantly  interact with their environment was an excellent fit in understanding social and societal structures  identified in the women experiences.

Methods: This study combined qualitative and quantitative methodologies in order to measure and also gain a deep understanding of the social cultural perceptions of the Kenyan women living with HIV/AIDS. Qualitative data was collected using a psychometric instrument and qualitative data  used semi- structured open ended questions. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data and a qualitative content analysis was conducted on the open-ended survey responses as a means of identifying common responses among participants.

Results: Since the study variables could be conveniently grouped into the personal, interpersonal, and social system categories used in King's theory, quantitative  significant findings were discussed and amplified or correlated with the corresponding qualitative findings. Significant correlation results to the women characteristics were found for constructs of verbal abuse, health care neglect, social isolation, fear of contagion, and total stigma score, yet no significance was found for workplace stigma.  From the mean values, the highest stigma construct scores included negative self-perception and social isolation, followed by verbal abuse.  Least often reported were the elements of health care neglect, fear of contagion, and work place stigma.  In total, five of seven scale scores differed significantly between urban and rural participants (urban women scoring lower), indicating that the rural women experienced higher stigmas compared to the urban participants.

Conclusion: The King's Conceptual theory structures and constructs informed both the qualitative and quantitative findings and showed evidence that strongly support this theoretical model which advances nursing knowledge.