Sleep Quality and Its Related Factors During Pregnancy

Tuesday, 23 July 2013: 3:30 PM

Ching-Yu Cheng, PhD, RN
School of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chiayi, Taiwan
Shwu-Ru Liou, PhD, RN
Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chiayi, Taiwan
Panchalli Wang, MD
Obstetrics/Gynecology, Chiayi Christian Hospital, Chia-Yi, Taiwan

Learning Objective 1: The learner will be able to understand sleep quality of pregnant women.

Learning Objective 2: The learner will be able to understand factors related to poor sleep quality during pregnancy.

Purpose: Pregnant women experience greater disturbed sleep such as more awakenings, longer awakening time, and lower sleep efficiency than non-pregnant women. Poorer sleep was found to relate to longer labor duration, cesarean delivery, and fatigue. However, sleep quality during pregnancy was not well studied. The purpose of this study was to explore sleep quality and its related factors during pregnancy. 

Methods: Data from 397 pregnant women with a mean age of 31.60 were analyzed for this cross-sectional study. More women were multiparous, employed, graduated from university or higher, and planned the pregnancy. The mean gestational age was 31.18 weeks while 42.8% were in the second trimester and 57.2% in the third trimester. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) with Cronbach’s alpha of .76 and one single question asked about sleep quality and problem of poor sleep quality were used to measure sleep quality. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test were used to analyze the data. 

Results: The mean score of the PSQI was 7.39 and 67.4% of the participants experienced poor sleep quality. By answering the single question about sleep, 73.6% of pregnant women reported having disturbed sleep. Among them, 76.0% had interrupted sleep, 25.1% could not fall asleep, 12.2% felt a lack of sleep, 28.3% felt sleepy in daytime. Sleep quality differed by trimester where women at later pregnancy experienced poorer sleep quality. Sleep quality was not different by age, educational level, employment, parity, or whether planned the pregnancy. 

Conclusion: Many pregnant women experienced poor sleep quality, especially interrupted sleep, regardless of their personal characteristics. Active assessment and management of pregnant women’s sleep problems need to be done since early pregnancy. Strategies that may help pregnant women to sleep need to be developed, tested, and implemented. Physiological factors that may explain poor sleep quality need to be explored.