The Impact of Self-Efficacy Intervention on Breast-Feeding Outcomes in Taiwan

Wednesday, 24 July 2013

I-Ju Pan, PhD, RN
Department of Nursing, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Learning Objective 1: identify the possible factors that might influence the breastfeeding behavior

Learning Objective 2: understand the reasons why the self-efficacy approach did not impact on the breastfeeding rate in Taiwan


 In Taiwan, actual breastfeeding rates fall short of 6 months recommendation duration. only 33% of infants are breastfed at 1 month, decreasing to 17% by 4 months and 13% by 6 months. 

The study aimed to encourage the mothers’ self-efficacy through an intervention based on self-efficacy theory in order to improve their breastfeeding duration at least 3 months.


 A longitudinal quasi-experimental design using pre- and post-tests with intervention and control groups was selected for the study. A total 80 mothers were invited to participate randomized into either experimental group or control group. Both groups received usual care during hospitalization but the experimental group received a scheduled telephone interviews after discharge from hospitals. Both groups will have a pre-test before discharge from hospital, a post-test at 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months. Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES)were used to measure breastfeeding confidence.


 The repeat measures ANOVA revealed no interaction effect for time by group (F (3,44)= .71, p=.55). Similarly, there was no significant main effect for time (F (3,44)= .20, p=.90) or for group (F (1,22)= .27, p=.60).These results revealed that mothers’ breastfeeding confidence did not differ between the two groups of mothers. In addition, there was no change in breastfeeding self-efficacy following the completion of breastfeeding self-efficacy approach.


Although not a statistically significant difference, there are 23 out of 40 mothers in experimental group still having breastfeeding compared to 1 out of 39 mothers in control group in the third month. Therefore, A self-efficacy based approach to breastfeeding health education holds promise as an effective intervention approach.Integrating self-efficacy enhancing strategies may increase a new mother’s confidence in her ability to breastfeed and to persevere if she does encounter difficulties.