Learning Objective 1: The learner will be able to understand some issues related to healthy diet during pregnancy.
Learning Objective 2: The learner will be able to identify educative interventions related to healthy diet during pregnancy.
Educational interventions should include the individual's autonomy as an ethical principle of health practice strategies, in order to consolidate, expand and implement the Human Right to Health and Adequate Food. However, pregnancy is a condition favorable to inadequate diet, sometimes with a monotonous diet and without the essential nutrients for maintaining a healthy lifestyle. We had as objective to analyze randomized controlled clinical trials on educational interventions used to promote a healthy diet during pregnancy.
Methods: Systematic review research without meta-analysis, performed in the CINAHL, SCOPUS, PUBMED, LILACS and COCHRANE databases in 2011. We selected five articles that examined the effects of educational intervention in 18 year old pregnant women with prenatal care routine, all published in English.
Results: Four randomized controlled trials presented significant results. One RCT received five points in Jadad Score. Therefore, there is evidence to indicate that the educational intervention is effective in changing behavior for a healthy diet during pregnancy. As intervention technique we used the brochure, interactive video and individual counseling through home consultation and visits. We identified in the intervention group increased adherence to official dietary recommendations and increased consumption of fruits, vegetables and fiber and decreasing consumption of high-calorie foods, sugars and fat compared to the control group who received the prenatal routine.
Conclusion: We concluded that the theme has been little explored in the absence of systematic review and national and international studies. We consider that the educational interventions are effective technologies and should be used by nurses to promote health practices for a healthy diet during pregnancy. The results of the interventions contribute to consolidate and expand the human right to health and adequate food.