Learning Objective 1: To cite why nurses must be acquainted with the most prevalent risk factors for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in their populations
Learning Objective 2: To cite risk factors for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome in a school hospital of São Paulo, Brazil
Methods: A cross-sectional study performed in the coronary unit of a school hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, from August to December, 2011. Sociodemographic characteristics and BMI, waist/hip ratio (WHR), Triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL and LDL values of 150 patients hospitalized for ACS were obtained from hospital charts. Five validated questionnaires were applied: nicotine dependence (Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire), food frequency (Food Frequency Questionnaire), alcohol consumption (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire). The protocol study was submitted to the institutional Ethics Committee.
Results: 72% had suffered an ST-elevation AMI, 72.7% male, 57.51±9.9 years old, 67.3% white, 36% without a primary school degree, 61.3% married, 46.7% earned 1 to 3 minimum wages; 70.7% had hypertension as a personal antecedent, 28.7% had diabetes mellitus (DM), and 40% had dyslipidemia; 69% had a family history of hypertension, 41.3% DM, 30% dyslipidemia and 60.7% CAD; 43% practiced moderate physical activity; 39% were overweight and 17.6% were obese class I; 59.3% were smokers; 37% were identified as having light alcohol intake. Stress perception was not different between women (28.5±8.3) and men (25±7). High total cholesterol (198±55mg/dL), low HDL (40±11) and high LDL (123±47) levels were verified. Patients reported high intake of fat and carbohydrate and low intake of fruit and vegetables.
Conclusion: ACS in a group of brazilian patients was associated with male gender, age>55, low education, low wages, low income, hypertension, DM, dyslipidemia, high body mass index, smoking and drinking habits and high cholesterol rates and inadequate eating habits.