Applying Psychological Well-Being to the Prediction of Happiness Among Elderly Retired Taiwanese

Friday, 26 July 2013: 9:10 AM

Hui-Hsun Chiang, RN, MSN
Department of Nursing, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

Learning Objective 1: The learner will be able to know the dimensions of happiness originated from Chinese culture among retired order people.

Learning Objective 2: The learner will be able to understand the difference between the Chinese Happiness and the concept of psychological well-being originated from Western society.

Purpose: Happiness is an important indicator of mental and physical health and life expectancy. It has been emphasized as one kind of well-being and how to define it varies from culture to culture.

Methods: The Chinese Happiness Inventory (CHI) was developed in order to measure the happiness of the population living in Chinese societies. On the other hand, the Ryff's psychological well-being (RPW) is a theory-guided scale developed in the West, and based on Western culture.  The relationship between RPW and CHI was unknown since the instruments were cultural sensitive. This study evaluates the canonical correlation between RPW and CHI among elderly retired Taiwanese.  Methods: Data were analyzed from 248 retired elders recruited from social service centers and public parks from September to November 2010. Internal consistency, factor structure and content validity were assessed. Canonical correlation analysis was applied to predict the CHI using RPW.

Results: Results of this study indicated that CHI is a three-dimensional scale which has a good relationship with RPW (ρ=.7). RPW is more well-known in Western society but less known in Asian country. CHI can be an alternative instrument to measure the concept of well-being. However, the canonical loading of autonomy, one sub-scale of the RPW, is much lower than the other 5 sub-scales.

Conclusions: RPW is also suitable to measure psychological well-being in retired elderly in Chinese culture, except in the sub-scale of autonomy. Culturally sensitive instruments should be considered when measuring the level of happiness and psychological well-being.