Development of the Japanese Version of the Teaching Style Assessment Scale

Saturday, 26 July 2014

Fumiko Yoshida, MSN, RN
School of Nursing, Saku University, Saku, Japan
Toyoaki Yamauchi, MD, ND, PhD, FNP, RN
Graduate School of Medicine & Health Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan


To develop the Teaching Style Assessment Scale for Japanese nursing educators.

To enable nursing educators to analyze their own teaching style.

To identify student-centered and/or teacher-centered elements in their individual practice.


The original scale on which this research is based was developed as the Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) by Gary J. Conti, EdD, and was itself based on an Adult Learning Model.

There was no scale with which to measure a teacher’s teaching style in Japan. Therefore, a Japanese version of PALS was necessary, and Dr. Conti granted permission for the development of such a scale.

A Provisional Japanese Version of the Teaching Style Assessment Scale (P-JVTSAS) was created by the researchers. The translation was accomplished in three steps.

After approval by the Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine IRB, copies of the P-JVTSAS were sent to a national sample of 2,256 Japanese nursing educators.

Based on a survey of 1,111 participants, using the P-JVTSAS which had been submitted to Japanese nursing teachers throughout Japan, the researchers developed the Japanese Version of the Teaching Style Assessment Scale.

Analyses: compared the scores of nursing teachers from the USA and Japan. Verification: Criterion-related validity, Construct validity, Content validity and Reliability.


SPSS software was used for analysis.

The Japanese teachers’ average for P-JVTSAS was 121.03 with a standard deviation of 15, which is lower than the scores of the American teachers (146 with SD 20). These scores indicate that Japanese nursing teachers lean toward a teacher-centered rather than student-centered teaching style.

Critertion-related validity and Construct validity were examined using 44 items; 7 factors were found by confirmatory factor analysis. 3 factors were found by exploratory factor analysis except 8 items, which were low loading (< 0.30). Content validity was examined with the testimony of the English experts. Internal consistency: Cronbach’s confident alpha was 0.854.


The Japanese Version of the Teaching Assessment Scale consists of 3 factors: individualization, student-centered actions by the teacher, and teacher-centered actions.

The validity and reliability of the JVTSAS were examined.