This study is to develop the educational program for nurses working at the hospitals in the central region of Vietnam. The central region is a well-known place for former Vietnam war battlefield and is the least developed area. There are many nurses who are in need of continuing education for their competency maintaining and improvement in central regional hospitals in Vietnam. In this research, 6 hospitals and 488 nurses were selected in a provincial hospital. Less than 10 percentage of total nurses has bachelor degree and remainders have associate bachelor degree. In addition, it shows a variety of nurses’ educational gap between urban and rural hospitals.
To develop special educational program, ADDIE was applied. It is a widely used systematic instructional design model composed of five phases such as analysis, design, develop, implement, and evaluation. With the purpose for this study, we just focused on three phases of ADDIE from analysis to develop. In analysis phase, An expert panel meeting was implemented in Vietnam for two times. The result of analysis was reflected for designing of the program and finally it was converged to special educational program.
The result of the analysis was very meaningful. We included experts from two Vietnam nursemanagers, two Vietnam doctors who has fellowship in Korea, and two professors from Korea. It took for 3 months from analysis to develop phases. At first, we figured out that two major needs such as trauma nursing and emergency maternal child nursing for learning after the expert meeting, making consideration them as main topics. After another expert meeting, a lots of worries were drawn about educational methods and materials because even though they wanted to learn main topics, their entry level of knowledge and clinical experiences were not appropriate for problem-based learning. Furthermore, it was so natural to be instructed by doctors in their culture. Second phase of design was excelled by the first analysis process. We had to make easy teaching and learning method for them, and we concluded that if we use audio-visual nursing skill video in learning session it would be a great help for them. We used a videos system for nursing students and assessed the usefulness of it. Two Vietnam doctors and professor working at Hue University responded that the suggested method is very good for rural hospital nurses’ competency building. What we need is to translate Korean to Vietnamese without mistaking cultural difference. We were lucky to find a woman who became a naturalized Korean with majoring Korean language at the University in Korea. We planned translating work into two steps, a draft version and expert revision. Third phase was developing a special educational program composed of main topics so we could rearrange video lists having main topics and the level of skill. Average time of each video is five to ten minutes and total number of 40 lists. Some nursing skills are performed both doctors and nurses and we excluded doctors-owned skills even though they are allowed to nurses in Korea.
We researched on the improvement of nursing education and practice in Vietnam. However, we could not expect visible outcome so fast. For example, Vietnam does not have a license examination or qualification proving system so whoever graduates from nursing college or program they can practice at the hospital. In spite of these surrounding, we have a very optimistic view because Vietnam has changed into global economy after doi moi while maintaining socialist regime. In addition, the changes of disease structure and the reasons of death compared to other underdeveloped countries are not similar to other underdeveloped countries, so we would take an another step to look inside to draw out their needs and design for educational program for fulfill their requirements.
Since development of an educational program using ADDIE was very effective in systematically with analyzing and then connecting to other phase, an each step having some outcome could convert into next. Especially, there were some considerations to sort out the lists of subtopics because of difference in work environment, job description among healthcare providers, and organizational culture. For example, nasopharyngeal airway is only permitted to doctors. In needle decompression, doctors can do that emergency skill while in Korea paramedic can do for saving patients from life threatening condition. It means that we have very differentiated healthcare personnel according to their specialty area in Korea, but there are non-existence of paramedic in Vietnam.
Through sequential three phases, we made a special educational program for hospital nurses working at central region of Vietnam. We hope that this special program for improving hospital nurses competency contribute to the situation for transitional patterns of health and medical disease. In addition, they could have half-year in service education once or twice a week as scheduled with developed audio-visual teaching method.