Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial of Salud, Educacion, Prevencion y Autocuidado (SEPA; translated as Health, Education, Prevention, and Self-Care). A sample of 548 Hispanic women from South Florida was selected. Bilingual female interviewers administered standardized health and behavior measures through face-to-face interviews. For these measures, participants selected their language of preference, English or Spanish. Prior to beginning recruitment, the University of Miami and the Miami-Dade County Health Department’s institutional review boards approved the study. PASW version 18.0 was used to analyze the data and simultaneous multiple regression. The simultaneous multiple regression analysis described the relationship between self-efficacy for HIV prevention and a set of independent variables or predictors. The independent continuous variables were age, HIV-related knowledge, and self-esteem. The independent dichotomous variables were living with a partner, employment status, and IPV.
Results: Most of the women were between ages 32 and 45 (mean 5 38.5 6 8.5; range 5 18–49). Most (68%) had a moderately low family income of less than $2,000 a month. One third of the women reported being employed. Almost half indicated that they were married. More than two thirds of the participants lived with a spouse or partner. More than half of the women identified their religion as Catholic. The mean score for self-efficacy for HIV prevention was 22.6 6 4.1 points (range =7–28). More than half of the participants scored 23 points or higher on this scale; the majority of the women reported high levels of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. The multiple regression analysis revealed that the omnibus test was statistically significant, R2 5 .127, F(6, 514) 5 12.41, p , .001. The six explanatory variables together accounted for 12.7% of the variance in self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Women who were older, living with a partner, had less HIV knowledge, and had a history of IPV reported significantly lower levels of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. HIV knowledge was the most important predictor of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Employment was not a significant predictor of self-efficacy for HIV prevention.
Conclusion: The predictor variables proposed by our study (age, living with a partner, HIV-related knowledge, IPV, and self-esteem), were significant predictors of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. The model successfully identified predictor variables. These variables have the potential to inform interventions aimed at increasing self-efficacy for HIV prevention. The predictors identified in the study can be used to identify high-risk Hispanic women who are in need of HIV prevention interventions.
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