The purpose of this research is to clarify the relationship between the quality of nursing faculty activities for the prevention of nursing student’s medical accidents and their personal attributes in Japan.
The Conceptual Framework is based on a literature review for the prevention of nursing student’s medical accidents during the nursing clinical practicum. It included 25 attributes of the nursing faculty as independent variables, and the quality of faculty’s teaching activity for the prevention of medical accidents as the dependent variable.
Instrument : The Teaching Activities of Nursing Faculty for Prevention Medical Accidents by Nursing Students in Clinical settings –Selected version- (TAPMA-S) was used to collect data of quality of nursing faculty activities for the prevention of nursing student’s medical accidents. It was a five-point Likert Scale developed based on a qualitative inductive research (Sadahiro & Funashima et al., 2013) with 40 items being grouped into 8 subscales. The total score (TAPMA-S) was ranging from 40 to 200. Higher scores indicate the perception of better teaching activity for the prevention of nursing student’s medical accidents. Criterion-related validity, content validity, construction validity, internal consistency, and stability of TAPMA-S were ensured (Sadahiro, Funashima et al., 2015). Nursing Faculty Attributes Questionnaire (FAQ) were used to collect data of Attributes of Japanese nursing faculty. It consists of 26 items to measure demographic variables, attributes as a teacher, attributes as a person as a learner, and attributes as a nurse. It has adopted Self Evaluation Scale of Oriented Problem Solving Behavior in Nursing Practice (OPSN) to measure attributes as a nurse. The “OPSN” was developed based on a qualitative inductive research (Sadahiro & Funashima et al., 1997). It has 25 items with 5-point Likert scale with total scores ranging from 25 to 125. Higher scores indicate the perception of better ability of nursing practice. Validity and Reliability of OPSN was ensured through research for the Japanese Nurses (Sadahiro & Yamashita, 2002). The Construction Validity for Nursing Faculty was ensured through a factor analysis. The internal consistency was ensured by the Cronbach's coefficient alpha of 0.959. (Sadahiro & Funashima et al., 2015)
Data Collection Procedure : After obtaining the ethical approval from the Sapporo City University Ethics Committee, a total of 462 directors in nursing education who were randomly sampled from baccalaureate programs, associate degree programs, and diploma programs in Japan were asked by mail to participate in the study. The instrument packets were distributed to 2,028 nursing faculty members who belonged to nursing educational institutions and agreed to participate in the study. The instrument packets in self-addressed envelopes were returned anonymously.
Statistical Analysis : The Statistical Package for Social Science ver.20 (SPSS) was used for the analysis of data. Descriptive analysis was conducted for the background characteristics of the participants. Because the total score of the TAPMA-S did not follow the normal distribution, Spearman’s correlations were employed to examine the relation with the total score of the “OPSN”, the age, and the years of teaching experiences. Man Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance were employed to examine other variables. The Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which the object variable TAPMA-S score was related to the explanation variable of Faculties attributes which identified the relation by univariate analysis.
A total of 881(43.4%) subjects returned the instruments by mail, and 786 of them were valid and analyzed. A total of 214 subjects in BSN/ ADN and 540 in diploma programs participated. The mean age was 45.9 (SD=8.2). The mean year of teaching experiences was 9.6 (SD=7.5). The mean year of clinical experiences was 13.6 (SD=7.7). The “TAPMA-O” scores ranged from 106 to 198 points, with a mean score of 160.5 (SD=18.8). The highest mean score of Subscale was 4.5 (SD=0.5), which was found for “VIII Self-Managing health of not only students but also teachers themselves”, and the second one was 4.3(SD=0.6), which was found for “VI providing students with a learning opportunity needed for the patient safety”. The lowest mean score was 3.5 (SD=0.6), which was found for I Making all necessary preparations prior to the nursing clinical practicum” and the second one was 3.7(SD=0.6), which was found for “V. Establishing a close communication with the students and the staff”. Univariate analysis was performed for 9 attributes related to the score of TAPMA-S. Those are the kind of school, a qualification as a nurse, conducting the practical training in collaboration with nurses, the satisfaction with their clinical nursing practicum, the satisfaction with their role as a teacher, ability of nursing practice, perception about nursing, having/not having a mentor, and membership of Academic Societies. Step-wise multiple regression analysis was performed by using the score of TAPMA-S as objective variables and using 9 attributes as explanation variables. Three attributes were retained, resulting in an R2 of 0.426 (F=32.17, p<.001) Three attributes that proved most valuable in the score of TAPMA-S were ability of nursing practice (beta=.497), the satisfaction with their clinical nursing practicum (beta=.234), and conducting the practical training in collaboration with nurses (beta=.179).
In this study it was suggested that nursing faculty having a high quality of teaching activity for the prevention of medical accidents by students have the following attributes. They possess a high capability in terms of nursing practice and have established a system to conduct practical trainings in cooperation with clinical instructors. In addition, they feel satisfied with their nursing clinical practicum. The followings are important to improve the quality of faculty’s teaching activity for the prevention of medical accidents by students during the nursing clinical practicum: First, faculty should find the meaning of instruction in nursing clinical practicum, and maintain/improve their ability of nursing practice and cooperation with nursing colleague. Second, the quality of the faculty’s ability to prevent medical accidents by students will be high, if they make their preparations before the nursing clinical practicums with the most studious care and communication with students, patients and the people involved in clinical nursing practicum during the clinical nursing practicum, including getting those abilities.