The purpose of research was to investigate the evaluation of the third years nursing students after the critical care program which hospital nursing experts teach. More specifically, the aim of the paper was to examine the changing self-efficacy of nursing students.
This study was a quantitative, pretest-posttest ,and comparative design.
This quantitative research used the questionnaire, including baseline demographics, and self-efficacy between the experimental groups (N=40) and control groups (N=40). The experimental group performed the critical care program of the intervention, and the control group received the traditional classes. The SPSS software packages 21.0 for Windows was used for analyze data according to results of quantitative research. Descriptive statistics provided frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the baseline demographics of participants between two groups. The independent two-sample t-test was used to analyze self- efficacy. The paired t- test was compared pre with post of self- efficacy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the increased scores of self-efficacy within and between different groups. Linear regression was applied to examine the associated between post-test score of self-efficacy and baseline data, and pre-test score.
The results on the baseline demographics of 80 participants between two groups showed that four variables of them were significant in sex(X2=6.05 or Mann-Whitney U test, p＜.05), religious affiliation(X2=18.81 or Mann-Whitney U test, p＜.05), number of sisters (Mann-Whitney U test, p＜.05) and interest in nursing(Mann-Whitney U test, p＜.05). No significant differences were found the other 11 variables such as age, horoscope, gender, aborigines, blood type, family in nursing, household income, number of brothers, ranking at home, volunteering in nursing, and ideal spouse occupation.
The analysis of the independent two-sample t-test indicated no significant differences in pre-test scores of self- efficacy. After the intervention in the experimental group, the post-test score of self-efficacy (M=2.63, SD=0.47) is higher than the pre-test score (M=2.49, SD=0.51), but analysis of paired t test show that no difference is statistically significant between pre-test and post-test (t=-1.906,p=0.064). In contrast to the control group, the post-test score of self-efficacy (M=2.54, SD=0.53) is lower than the pre-test score (M=2.61, SD=0.64), and analysis of paired t test show that no difference is statistically significant between pre-test and post-test (t=-0.496,p=0.622).
Analysis of a one-way ANOVA revealed that there were group differences in the increased scores of self-efficacy (F=4.433, p= 0.038*).
The results of stepwise regression demonstrated that pre-test score of self-efficacy predicted the post-test scores of self-efficacy in the experimental group (β =0.560, t =4.165, p <.001) and explained variation 31.3% (coefficient of determination). Also, pre-test score of self-efficacy predicted the post-test scores of self-efficacy in the control group (β =0.753, t =7.051, p <.001) and explained variation 56.7% (R2).
The clinical nursing teachers of the program play the important role models. The sources of self-efficacy are followed as previous performance or mastery of experiences, observe and learn from models, social persuasion or the feedback. They might help students set goals, encourage the use of challenging and proximal goals, provide honest and explicit feedback to increase students’ efficacy beliefs, facilitate accurate calibration of self-efficacy, and use peer modeling to build self-efficacy. When students experience success or get positive feedback, their self-efficacy become better. If nursing experts share their successful life, students can motivate to learn and increase their self-efficacy. Little by little, their higher self-efficacy might promote the persistence in performing tasks or learning challenges. Likewise, the lower self-efficacy might be resulted from suffering difficulty and uncertain socialization during college learning period.
The results have a contribution to explain the evaluation of the critical care program in increase the self-efficacy of nursing students. The department of nursing will improve the instructional program design inadequately. When new nurses are assigned to critical unit, they have the ability to adapt the task. The new nurse turnover rate remains lower than past, especially during the entry several months. Some of new nurses do not leave hospital due to reality shock.