Methods: Over 280 data points (upper limbs) were sampled from healthy people and LE patients to exam the correlation between the mobile platform systems and the “gold standards” (water displacement and perometry); and to determine the reliability of both proposed methods. In comparison with water-displacement, 14 measurements of upper limbs from many repetitions for 7 healthy test subjects were done. Regarding the comparison with the Perometer, 34 upper limbs from 17 human subjects, including LE patients, were measured. IRB approval was received for integration of the 3D smart phone images with circumferences and symptom assessment in a prospective surveillance model with breast cancer survivors at risk of lymphedema.
Results: Pearson correlations of 0.97-0.98 with the kinect and smartphone 3D mobile platform systems and clinical limb volume measures of water displacement and perometry are reported. The two completely automated and robust systems for 3D image of human arms outperformed existing methods in many aspects, including cost, maintenance, and ease of use, while they maintained high correlations with the “gold standards.” Patients and staff are open to, and, indeed, eager to, participate in the application of the mobile device in the clinical setting.
Conclusion: The systems will accurately assist patients in managing LE through early detection and monitoring in the clinic and at home. Algorithms will be further refined to facilitate even more efficient and accurate data capture in the clinical and home setting. We will be doing further testing as we work to assess the ease of use by patients and clinicians with variable levels of comfort with technology.