Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Depression: Concepts and Management

Monday, 23 July 2018: 10:20 AM

Rainier Castillo Moreno-Lacalle, MSN, RN
Mary Grace Lacanaria, PhD
Myra Bangsal, BSN
Mae Rose Bay-ya, BSN
Kristine Ann Erese, BSN
Lourrie Ann Gabol, BSN
Meriam Geronimo, BSN
Saintly Blaise B. Legiralde, BSN, RN
Marfil Mae Lomandas, BSN
Ma. Mae Menzi, BSN
Cici Donna Real, BSN
Keanu Ufina, BSN
John Michael Brico Solis, SN
School of Nursing, Saint Louis University, Baguio, Philippines

Aim: To describe the cultural perspectives in terms of causes, responses, and signs and symptoms of depression by the: Kankana-eys, Ilocanos, and Maranaos in the Philippines and to determine the culturally-based management for depression across the cultures.

Background: The intricate complexity surrounding depression might be grounded from cultural subtlety. The protracted base of depression has ignited interest on deeper understanding and finding the relevant management that might be deeply embedded in cultures. Therefore, to bring light to this might counteract the burgeoning prevalence and impact of depression across different culture.

Methods: Ethnographic design was employed with interviewing a total of 41 participants. The participants are traditional healers, local cultural experts, writers of books, local religious leaders, and with the age ranging 46-85 years old and all have personally witnessed and/or performed cultural practices on depression. To enhance the richness of the study, crystallization of data gathering were done that is including structured interview, field notes (immersion), focus group discussions, documentary analysis, and observational analysis. The study focused on describing the cultural perspectives on meanings, causes, and attitudes, and culturally-based management on depression from Baguio City, Municipalities of Kapangan, Buguias, and Kibungan, Province of Benguet, and Vigan City, Philippines.

Findings: The three cultures have similarities and differences with wide ranging attributions: including magico-spiritual influence, relational problems, economic pressure, emotional, somatic, and chemical causes. The signs and symptoms of depression are grouped based on physical, social, behavioural, and psychological aspects. Attitude towards depression is positive namely: curiosity, sympathy, and extending social support. Culturally-based management was divided into three domains: preventive, curative, and rehabilitative interventions.

Conclusions: The beliefs and management on depression cuts across tradition, culture, religion, and medical influences. These interrelationships form part of their understanding of depression, many of which are still rooted in magico-spiritual approaches.

Recommendations: These findings suggest inclusion of culturally sensitive and appropriate health care to address the needs of a person with depression. More so to disseminate the various cultural concepts and management on depression.