Sunday, November 4, 2007

This presentation is part of : Global Leadership Models
Empowerment among Pakistani Nursing Leaders: A Grounded Theory Approach
Saleema A. Gulzar, MScN, School of Nursing, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan
Learning Objective #1: Explain the process of developing an indigenous context based empowerment model for nursing leadership development in Pakistan.
Learning Objective #2: Examine the emerging model of leadership empowerment for nursing in Pakistan.

Nursing is a growing profession worldwide; however nurses continue to experience low image, social disapproval, and oppression, particularly in the third world countries. This phenomenon results in disempowerment of nurses contributing to low performance and poor patient outcomes. It is becoming increasingly clear that to meet the demands of a complex health care system nurses need to be empowered. Empowered nursing leaders are better able to facilitate positive changes and influence the society as a whole. Although considerable research work has been done in this area internationally, negligible attention has been given to studying the empowerment of nursing leaders in Pakistan.

        This study, conducted in 2006, aimed at discovering the key concepts and processes of empowerment within the Pakistani context. The study was conducted using a grounded theory approach. Twelve national nursing leaders from the public and the private health sectors were interviewed using semi structured interview guide. Data were analyzed using grounding theory analysis coding process and through constant comparisons within the data and literature reviews. A theoretical model of empowerment was proposed including conceptual and operational frameworks. The conceptual framework revealed “empowerment” as the core category. Empowerment was explained within six major categories. These were: status of a nurse, nursing profession, power relationships, leadership and management, and value belief system. The operational framework revealed three major categories for empowerment: challenges, adopted strategies, and outcomes. Major recommendations for empowering nursing leaders included: strengthening nursing educational system; inclusion of courses on ethics, gender, politics and empowerment; strengthening nursing regulatory and professional bodies by appointing strong, empowered nursing leaders; and educating more male nurses to improve the gender mix.             This indigenous context-based model of empowerment provides a framework for nursing leaders to develop a guiding tool to enhance empowerment of nurses in Pakistan.