Saturday, July 14, 2007
This presentation is part of : Nursing Administration and Leadership Issues
Increasing hardiness among nurse managers: A longitudinal approach
Sharon Kay Judkins, RN, PhD, CNAA, BC, School of Nursing, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA, Leslie Furlow, RN, PhD, C-FNP, AchieveMentors, Inc, Cleburne, TX, USA, and Terryl Kendricks, RN, MSN, Plaza Medical Center of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, TX, USA.
Learning Objective #1: describe at least 3 effects of longitudinal hardiness training among nurse managers in an acute-care hospital.
Learning Objective #2: compare hardiness and turnover rates among managers who have attended hardiness training.

Background: Hardiness has been determined to be a resilience factor with stress (Kobasa). Hardy individuals recognize they have options to exercise judgment (control), opportunities to become actively involved in various life activities (commitment), and ability to perceive change as beneficial (challenge) (Pollock). Links of hardiness to decreased stress may be helpful to nurse managers. Previous studies have determined that hardiness can be learned and sustained (Rowe).

Aims: To determine effects of longitudinal hardiness training among nurse managers in an acute-care hospital; to compare hardiness and turnover rates among nursing staff.

Methods: This longitudinal descriptive study examined hardiness among a convenience sample of 12 managers attending a hardiness training program (HTP) in 2006. Using a pre/posttest format, pre-testing occurred after 2.5 days of initial training. Post-testings occurred after initial training (post 1), after 6 weekly 2-hour sessions (post 2), and after a 2-hour session at 5 months (post 3). In addition, turnover rates were compared to the 5-months prior to and following hardiness training. The Hardiness Scale was used to measure hardiness (Bartone, et al.).

Results: Paired samples t-test revealed a significant (p<.05) increase in hardiness levels pre [M=2.08(.17)] to post 1 [M=2.12(.13)] and no significant changes post 1 to 2 [M=2.1(.24)], nor post 2 to 3 [M=2.2(.27)]. No significant correlation was determined between hardiness levels and turnover rates.

Discussion: Hardiness scores were increased and sustained over a 5 month time period after attending hardiness training. Although not significant, turnover rates did decrease 6.8% by the end of the 10 month training period.

Conclusions: Attending a longitudinal HTP may increase and sustain hardiness among nurse managers, thus proving invaluable to healthcare organizations as resiliency against workplace stressors is increased. Further, increasing hardiness has the potential to positively influence workplace culture when dealing with burnout, productivity, job satisfaction, and absenteeism.