Incorporation of Self-Care Training for School-Age Children with Defecation Difficulties

Monday, July 11, 2011

Miyuki Nishida, RN, PhD
Faculty of Health Care and Nursing, Juntendo University, Chiba, Japan

Learning Objective 1: The learner will be able to know self-care training for school age children with defecation difficulties.

Learning Objective 2: The learner will be able to understand how to get medical play,and doll therapy.

Objective: Clarification of relationship requirements preceding introduction to self-care training for independent defecation in school-age children with defecation disorders.Methods: Picture drawing and doll play were used to facilitate narrative on one’s own defecation behavior as a measure for establishing a relationship between subject and therapist preceding self-care training in seven 6-9 year olds with defecation disorders, keeping records of the words, actions, and expressions observed.Ethical considerations: The study was reviewed and approved by the ethics committees of both the university and the university hospital where data was collected.Results: 1) Drawing: None of the children commenced drawing voluntarily. All but one drew using a single color despite encouragement to use multiple colors. All children started talking with the researcher while drawing.
2) Doll play: All children used the doll to represent themselves while describing body positions for edemas or circumstances surrounding defecation. All children took interest in the doll, although some took the dolls into their own hands while others chose to look on while the researcher manipulated the doll. One child drew a face on the doll saying, “Show this to the other kids too.”Discussion: Late childhood or school age corresponds to the period of establishing self-care, while still being heavily dependent on the mother. Being a delicate matter, children with defecation difficulties are believed to associate defecation with negative emotions. As such, prior establishment of a relationship with the children takes on particular relevance, for which picture drawing and doll play were demonstrated as being effective measures.