Dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to cognitive impairment, functional disability, and poor quality of life. It affects calculation, learning capacity, language and judgment (WHO, 2012).
Worldwide, nearly 35.6 million people live with dementia. This number is expected to double by 2030 (65.7 million) and more than triple by 2050 (115.4 million). Dementia affects people in all countries, with more than half (58%) living in low- and middle-income countries. By 2050, this is likely to rise to more than 70%. (WHO, 2012). It is projected that the number of people with dementia in the Philippines by 2050 is approximately 1.15 million people.(Statistic Portal).The data are very alarming and as nurses, the researchers wants to look on how to respond to this increasing number of dementia. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition published a study in 2012, where they tested various types of bingo cards to find out which aided perception in seniors with diminished cognitive function. They found that the largest cards with largest type and highest contrast improved playing performance among this group, and that this increased cognition was also translatable to other activities. Another study showed that playing bingo could help enhance the speed and memory of the human brain (Kausler, 2012).
Since Filipino people are fond of playing bingo games, it was the aim of the study to know the effect of bingo games in the cognitive level of older adult diagnosed with dementia in terms of memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, language and command.
Quasi-experimental was used under time series design. Fifteen (15) older adult from a religious institutions diagnosed with dementia and willing to participate joined the study. Informed consent was obtained from the institution as well as the participants. Since older adult are vulnerable, their health safety was observed through monitoring of vital signs and blood pressure, before and after each game. Bingo games were run for seven consecutive Saturdays using the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS). Pre-test and post-test of the tool were done after the intervention which is the playing bingo. Wilcoxon and Friedman tests were used as statistical treatments.
Results and Findings
Majority of the respondents were 75-84 years old and were college graduates. The bingo game is effective in terms of memory, thinking, orientation, language and command as shown in the following results: There was a significant difference in the status of the respondents in memory with a p-value of 0.000, thinking with a p-value of 0.000, orientation with a p-value of 0.003, language with a p-value of 0.002 and command with a p-value of 0.000 which is less than 0.05.
Results shows that continuous playing of bingo for seven consecutive week improves the memory of the respondents as evidence in the significant difference between the pretest and posttest. Studies show that those who play bingo regularly have better memory as well as better reactions whether theywin prizes or not. They become more active and energetic. The game of bingo is also able to keep the mind in a competitive state where the speed is going to boost their emotional aspect of the mental stimulation. (Clancy, 2016).
Results show that it improve the “thinking” capability of the participants. Bingo has positive impact to the brain where the brain is able to train the person to think faster and the brain to work quicker( Bingo blogger, 2014).
For criterion on “orientation”, result shows improvement from moderate to very good. According to a 2002 study by Southampton University, regular Bingo players were found by researchers to be faster and have a higher accuracy rating of finding their numbers on cards than the non-bingo playing control group were. The groups were subject to several tests involving mental speed and memory as they had to quickly scan items for information and retain said data. (Canlom, 2014).
It had also a great impact to the criterion on “command” of the respondents. Bingo Blogger (2015) says that one of the effects bingo has on the brain is it is able to help train the person to think faster and the brain to work quicker. Bingo is a fast paced game and as the numbers are called out, the person must search for their number and then move on to the next. This helps train the brain to respond quicker to commands and prompts.
But on the other hand, on the criterion “comprehension” it got a p-value of 0.157 which was greater than p-value of 0.05 and had no significant difference.
Conclusion and Recommendations
The researchers conclude that playing bingo games was effective in the improvement of the cognitive level in terms of memory, thinking, orientation, language and command of older adult with dementia as shown in the result. Nevertheless, playing bingo brought a lot of happiness to these older adult and as the cognitive level is improved , it is visible that the interaction to each other is remarkably increased. The researchers recommend therefore that bingo game could be one of the activities during socialization day in this institution.
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